The Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD), led by former labor union leader Frederick Chiluba, humiliated Kaunda and UNIP with an overwhelming electoral victory.Zambia's economy and infrastructure had also suffered from sabotage and bombings by Rhodesian and South African air force planes.It came into effect in 1962 and, for the first time, it was agreed that Africans would form the majority in the new Legislative Council.
The Arabs came in as traders and merchants, while the whites were missionaries, civil servants, commercial farmers, miners, adventurers, and entrepreneurs.
Over time, English became the official language used for business, government, commerce, and schooling.
Zambia's crime was that it had provided refugee camps, limited training facilities for guerrillas and exile headquarters for Rhodesian and South African groups that were seeking to overthrow white minority-dominated regimes in Salisbury and Pretoria.
In the December 2001 election, Chiluba's hand-picked successor, lawyer Levy Mwanawasa, narrowly squeaked to victory by winning 30 percent of the votes against several opposition candidates.
The opposition parties claimed the election was marred by fraud, vote rigging, and the government's misuse of its powers.
Despite the more liberalized conditions since the return of multiparty politics, the minister of Information and Broadcasting Services in Zambia still has much control over the country's broadcasting system.UNIP leader Kenneth David Kaunda became Zambia's democratically elected president.Soon, Kaunda and Zambia moved systematically to eliminate the opposition and turn the country into a one-party state, something that had become fashionable in Africa.Another mainstay of the Zambian economy are minerals.In the 1960s, Zambia was regarded as the world's third largest producer of copper.Release of these details galvanized African nationalist leaders in Zambia and Malawi to mobilize to stop the federal idea from being implemented.