Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund.
Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Attacks by the Germans continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.
In 1186, a letter from Pope Urban III states that the castle of Hafn (Copenhagen) and its surrounding lands, including the town of Hafn, were given to Absalon, Bishop of Roskilde 1158–1191 and Archbishop of Lund 1177–1201, by King Valdemar I.
Originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century.
Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences and armed forces.
On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde.
As the town became more prominent, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League.After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment.This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980.Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.After further disasters in the early 19th century when Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.