By 100 AD, when Tacitus wrote Germania, Germanic tribes had settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany.However, Austria, Baden Württemberg, southern Bavaria, southern Hessen and the western Rhineland had been conquered and incorporated into Roman provinces: Noricum, Raetia, Germania Superior, and Germania Inferior.
Germany's capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Dortmund and Essen.The country's other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Leipzig, Bremen, Dresden, Hannover and Nuremberg.The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old.Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm.During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward.
Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire.
Germany's economy in the 21st century flourished and currently is the world's 4th largest by nominal GDP and 5th largest by PPP.
As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods.
After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded: the democratic West Germany and the socialist East Germany.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990.
is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe.