(4) Pressured by Hera's hatred of Troy, Zeus arranges for the Trojan Pandaros to break the truce by wounding Menelaus with an arrow. (5) In the fighting, Diomedes kills many Trojans, including Pandaros, and defeats Aeneas, whom Aphrodite rescues, but Diomedes attacks and wounds the goddess.Apollo faces Diomedes and warns him against warring with gods.While Helen tells Priam about the Greek commanders from the walls of Troy, both sides swear a truce and promise to abide by the outcome of the duel.
Many heroes and commanders join in, including Hector, and the gods supporting each side try to influence the battle.Emboldened by Athena, Diomedes wounds Ares and puts him out of action.Along with the Odyssey, the Iliad is among the oldest extant works of Western literature, and its written version is usually dated to around the 8th century BC.(1) After an invocation to the Muses, the story launches in medias res towards the end of the Trojan War between the Trojans and the besieging Greeks.Odysseus confronts and beats Thersites, a common soldier who voices discontent about fighting Agamemnon's war.
After a meal, the Greeks deploy in companies upon the Trojan plain.
Under pressure, Agamemnon agrees to return Chryseis to her father, but decides to take Achilles' captive, Brisēís, as compensation.
Angered, Achilles declares that he and his men will no longer fight for Agamemnon but will go home.
Agamemnon heeds the dream but decides to first test the Greek army's morale, by telling them to go home.
The plan backfires, and only the intervention of Odysseus, inspired by Athena, stops a rout.
Paris offers to return the treasure he took and give further wealth as compensation, but not Helen, and the offer is refused.