The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century.Another contribution was the development of fritware, originating from 9th century Iraq.Best is most pupular FREE Islamic marriage or matrimonial website in the world.
19th-century colonialism and 20th-century decolonisation have resulted in several independent Muslim-majority states around the world, with vastly differing attitudes towards and political influences granted to, or restricted for, Islam from country to country.These have revolved around the question of Islam's compatibility with other ideological concepts such as secularism, nationalism (especially Arab nationalism and Pan-Arabism, as opposed to Pan-Islamism), socialism (see also Arab socialism and socialism in Iran), democracy (see Islamic democracy), republicanism (see also Islamic republic), liberalism and progressivism, feminism, capitalism and more.Amir Arsalan was also a popular mythical Persian story, which has influenced some modern works of fantasy fiction, such as The Heroic Legend of Arslan.Ibn Tufail (Abubacer) and Ibn al-Nafis were pioneers of the philosophical novel.The age is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786–809) with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world sought to translate and gather all the known world's knowledge into Arabic, The Abbasids were influenced by the Quranic injunctions and hadiths, such as "the ink of a scholar is more holy than the blood of a martyr," that stressed the value of knowledge.
The major Islamic capital cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Córdoba became the main intellectual centers for science, philosophy, medicine, and education.
but disagreements on other matters have led to appearance of different religious schools and branches within Islam.
In the modern era, most of the Muslim world came under influence or colonial domination of European powers.
After Muhammad died in 632, his successors (the Caliphs) continued to lead the Muslim community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran.
The majority of Muslims consider the first four successors to be 'rightly guided' or Rashidun.
The succeeding Umayyad Caliphate attempted two failed sieges of Constantinople in 674–678 and 717–718.