Giles, Greyfriars and the Canongate, and the extensive Georgian New Town, built in the 18th century.
Edinburgh became a major intellectual centre, earning it the nickname "Athens of the North" because of its many neo-classical buildings and reputation for learning, recalling ancient Athens.
From the 1770s onwards, the professional and business classes gradually deserted the Old Town in favour of the more elegant "one-family" residences of the New Town, a migration that changed the city's social character.
) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
It is located in Lothian on the Firth of Forth's southern shore.
It appears to derive from the place name Eidyn mentioned in the Old Welsh epic poem Y Gododdin.
The change in nomenclature, from Din Eidyn to Edinburgh, reflects changes in the local language from Cumbric to Old English, the Germanic language of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia that permeated the area from the mid-7th century and is regarded as the ancestor of modern Scots.Recognised as the capital of Scotland since at least the 15th century, Edinburgh is home to the Scottish Parliament and the seat of the monarchy in Scotland.Historically part of Midlothian, the city has long been a centre of education, particularly in the fields of medicine, Scots law, literature, the sciences and engineering.As a consequence, the Parliament of Scotland merged with the Parliament of England to form the Parliament of Great Britain, which sat at Westminster in London.The Union was opposed by many Scots, resulting in riots in the city.The city is also famous for the Edinburgh International Festival and the Fringe, the latter being the world's largest annual international arts festival.