The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in 1517.
During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman and later British Palestine.
With successive Persian rule, the autonomous province Yehud Medinata was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans.
The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest.
The region came to be populated predominantly by Greco-Romans on the coast and Samaritans in the hill-country.
Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule.
The Roman Empire invaded the region in 63 BCE, first taking control of Syria, and then intervening in the Hasmonean Civil War.
The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome.In its Basic Laws, Israel defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state.Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel.The area is also known as the Holy Land, being holy for all Abrahamic religions including Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the Bahá'í Faith.From 1920, the whole region was known as Palestine (under British Mandate) Other notable Paleolithic sites include caves Tabun, Qesem and Manot.Jewish presence in the region has persisted to a certain extent over the centuries.